Threat Modelling: A proactive approach to software security

In the digital era, the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats is both a marvel and a challenge for software developers. While DevSecOps has helped integrate security seamlessly into the development lifecycle, a proactive approach is vital to pre-empt potential vulnerabilities. Enter threat modelling, an essential tool to ensure a robust security posture in software development. 

The fundamentals of threat modelling 

Threat modelling, at its core, is a structured method used to identify, prioritise, and manage potential threats in a system. By comprehensively analysing a system’s architecture, threat modelling uncovers possible vulnerabilities and devises countermeasures before any malicious exploits occur. The main components involved include assets (what we need to protect), threats (potential attacks or breaches), vulnerabilities (weak points in the system) and mitigations (actions to prevent or lessen threats). 

The business-driven benefits of threat modelling 

In the intricate dance of business and technology, the two have become intertwined in a rhythm where one step out of place could lead to drastic consequences. Threat modelling, often viewed from a strictly technical lens, offers a myriad of business advantages, marrying the world of cybersecurity with tangible organisational gains. 

  1. Cost efficiency: The adage, ‘A stitch in time saves nine,’ couldn’t be more apt. Addressing potential threats during the design phase can save a company a significant amount in the long run. According to a report by the IBM Institute for Business Value, the average cost of a data breach in 2020 was $3.86 million. Early identification through threat modelling could reduce or even negate such costs. 
  2. Enhanced reputation: In an age where news travels at the speed of light, a security breach can severely tarnish a company’s image. Proactive threat management strengthens brand trust, assuring stakeholders and customers of the organisation’s commitment to safeguarding their data. 
  3. Compliance and regulation: With evolving cyber laws, maintaining compliance is crucial. Threat modelling helps organisations ensure they are aligned with global standards, avoiding penalties and potential lawsuits. 
  4. Streamlined development: A well-structured threat model provides developers with a clear roadmap. Instead of retroactively fixing vulnerabilities, developers can build more securely from the get-go, reducing the time to market. 
  5. Competitive advantage: In a saturated market, having robust security measures can become a unique selling point. Organisations that prioritise security through techniques like threat modelling differentiate themselves, potentially winning over discerning clients. 
  6. Informed decision making: By identifying potential threats, business leaders are armed with the information they need to make strategic decisions, whether it is allocating resources or deciding on software deployment timelines. 

Whilst threat modelling is undeniably technical in nature, its ramifications echo across the entire business spectrum. From cost-saving to reputation management, this proactive approach intertwines the interests of both IT and boardroom, making it an indispensable strategy in the modern business playbook. 

Why DevSecOps needs threat modelling 

DevSecOps, whilst bringing security to the forefront of the development process, requires a proactive stance. Threat modelling, by nature, serves this exact purpose. It allows teams to: 

  • Understand the intricacies of their system 
  • Anticipate and map potential vulnerabilities 
  • Formulate preventive strategies, ensuring that security is not just reactive but proactive. 

Steps in the threat modelling process 

  1. System decomposition: A thorough analysis breaks down the system, elucidating data flow, entry, and exit points. Tools like Microsoft’s Threat Modelling Tool can facilitate this step. 
  2. Threat identification: Techniques such as STRIDE or Attack Trees are employed to discern possible threats.
  3. Risk assessment: Each threat is ranked based on potential impact and likelihood, ensuring resources are allocated efficiently. 
  4. Mitigation planning: With threats mapped, countermeasures and patches are strategised. 
  5. Review and iteration: Threat modelling is not a one-off process. Regular reviews ensure that the model evolves with the software, keeping it secure against new threats. 

Case study: the Heartbleed bug and OpenSSL 

In 2014, the Heartbleed bug emerged as one of the most notorious vulnerabilities in the cybersecurity world. Affecting OpenSSL, a widely used software library for encrypting internet traffic, the bug had the potential to expose private keys and sensitive data. Not only did this vulnerability compromise user data, but its widespread nature meant that countless servers worldwide were at risk. 

Whilst the Heartbleed bug was eventually patched, its emergence underscores the importance of proactive security measures like threat modelling. Had threat modelling been applied rigorously, this vulnerability might have been identified and mitigated earlier, reducing its impact on the digital community. 

Challenges in implementing threat modelling 

Like any process, threat modelling has its challenges: 

  • Resistance to new methodologies: Some teams might find it cumbersome to adopt a new approach amidst their regular workflows. 
  • Complexities in modelling: For intricate systems, creating an exhaustive threat model can be daunting. 
  • Training and expertise: An effective threat model requires trained experts. However, with the right guidance, persistence, and partnering with experienced teams like GFT, companies can seamlessly integrate threat modelling into their processes, ensuring the utmost security for their software. 


In the pursuit of software security, threat modelling emerges as an invaluable ally. By anticipating and countering threats before they manifest themselves, it ensures software not only meets but exceeds security standards in today’s volatile cyber environment. 

GFT: your expert partner in threat modelling 

Embarking on your journey towards fortified software security? GFT is here to help. Our experienced team offers comprehensive threat modelling services, tailored to meet your unique business and technological needs. We leverage contemporary strategies and tools to swiftly identify and tackle potential threats, ensuring foundational software security from day one. 

Ready to elevate your software security? Get in touch with GFT today. Let’s discuss how we can enable you to anticipate, assess, and mitigate cyber threats effectively through tailored threat modelling strategies. Reach out for a conversation about securing your digital assets and safeguarding your organisation’s future. 



CWE-79: Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation (‘Cross-site Scripting’)  

CVE-2014-0160 Detail – National Vulnerability Database  

Microsoft’s Threat Modelling Tool: A comprehensive guide  

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